Posts Tagged ‘ depression ’

5 Ways to Fight the Blues…with Science!

So you’re stuck in that mid-week slump…the weekend lies on the other side of a scorching desert of work, and you have no canteen because you gave up water for Lent (in this metaphor, “water” refers to alcohol…just to be clear).

YAY SCIENCE!

But fear not! Neuroscience knows how to cheer you up! Nope, this isn’t another post about sex or drugs…though those are coming soon. This one’s about five things science says you can do right now – with your mind – to chase your cranky mood away.

1.Take a look around
Research shows that people who focus on the world around them, instead of on their own thoughts, are much more likely to resist a relapse into depression. This is easy to do – just find something interesting (or beautiful) to look at, and think about that for a few seconds…you’ll be surprised how quickly your worries fade.

2. Do some mental math
Scientists say doing a little simple arithmetic – adding up the digits of your phone number, for example – reroutes mental resources from worry to logic. Don’t worry; your emotions will still be there when you’re done…but they’re less likely to hog the spotlight if you don’t give them center stage.

3. Get out and about
Lots of studies show that physical activity raises levels of endorphins – the body’s own “feel-good” chemicals – and helps improve your mood throughout the day. You don’t have to run a marathon; even a quick walk around the block will get your blood pumping and help clear your mind.

4. Find some excitement
Some very interesting studies have found that courage – a willingness to face some of your fears – feeds on itself; in other words, the more adventurous your behavior is, the fewer things your brain considers threatening. In a way, it’s a “fake it ’til ya make it” situation…but instead of trying to be someone you’re not, you’re becoming more comfortable with the person you are.

5. Remember, it’s not always a bad thing
It sometimes helps to remember that stress is a natural phenomenon…as natural as digestion or sleep. Though stress (or sadness, or worry) can sometimes get out of hand, our bodies have evolved these responses to help us, and there’s nothing “wrong” with you just because you’re feeling annoyed or down in the dumps today. Instead of trying to make the feeling go away, sometimes the best thing to do is acknowledge it, and think about what’s triggering it. You might surprise yourself with an insight.

So, those tips are pretty simple, right? Try some of ‘em out, and let me know which ones worked best for you. After all, that’s why scientists study this stuff – to help us all understand more about what our minds are up to.

Stress Intervention

Scientists have discovered a way to shut down the brain’s “stress process” before it gets going, says a new study.

Stress, or just a very acute case of the munchies? It's hard to say.

By blocking the brain’s ability to manufacture certain chemicals called neurosteroids, researchers have managed to temporarily cut off a biological process crucial for stressful behavior – and for many stressful feelings as well.

Animals from amphibians all the way up to humans produce a hormone called corticosterone in their adrenal glands. Corticosterone levels become elevated under stress, and this hormone is a major ingredient in a number of stress-related biological processes, from feelings of nervousness to aggressive behavior.

Corticosterone does most of its direct work within a brain pathway known as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (also called the HPA or HTPA axis). To be honest, the word “pathway” is a bit of an oversimplification – the HPA is actually a whole set of neurochemical feedback circuits involved in regulating digestion, immune response, and mood, among other things.

The HPA’s activity is mostly regulated by a neurotransmitter chemical called gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA to its friends). GABA is typically an inhibitory neurotransmitter, which means it prevents electrochemical signals from being passed beyond a certain point. It often works closely with a neurosteroid called tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC), which helps its inhibitory effects spread even more widely throughout the HPA.

But when we come under stress, everything changes: the adrenal glands start cranking out extra-large doses of THDOC and sending them up into the HPA. And here’s where things get weird – those conditions trigger a certain electrochemical shift that causes GABA and THDOC to activate the HPA rather than inhibit it.

As the Journal of Neuroscience reports, the discovery of that neurochemical mechanism is the first half of a two-part breakthrough made Jamie Maguire‘s team at Tufts University:

We have identified a novel mechanism regulating the body’s response to stress by determining that neurosteroids are required to mount the physiological response to stress.

But how did they discover this mechanism, you ask? Well, since the team suspected that neurosteroidogenesis - the production of neurosteroids like THDOC – was a crucial component in stress-related HPA activation, they got a bright idea: they wondered if a drug that blocked neurosteroidogenesis might be able to stop the brain’s stress response before it could even get into gear.

As it turned out, they were right – they cut off the THDOC rush by administering a drug called finasteride – which you might’ve heard of under the brand name Propecia. Yep, the baldness drug:

Blocking neurosteroidogenesis with finasteride is sufficient to block the stress-induced elevations in corticosterone and prevent stress-induced anxiety-like behaviors in mice.

In other words, the researchers found that finasteride does more than just control stress – it blocks the chemical cascade that causes stress-related feelings and behavior. As far as they can tell, it prevents animals from experiencing stress at all - at least temporarily.

This has the potential to develop into a far more powerful treatment than benzodiazepines like Xanax and Ativan, which work by helping GABA inhibit more activity than it normally would. By contrast, a finasteride-like drug would make it almost impossible to feel stressed, even if you tried – meaning this drug might also be used to treat diseases like epilepsy and major depression, which have been linked to excessive activation of the HPA.

Right now, Maguire’s team is focused on isolating more of the exact neural connections that play roles in disorders like these. That means it may be a few years before this “wonder drug” becomes available. In the meantime, I wouldn’t recommend swallowing handfuls of Propecia when you’re feeling stressed – the drug needs to be applied in a pretty targeted way to make this work, which means a major part of pharmaceutical development will be the creation of an effective chemical delivery system.

Even so, it’s exciting to think that before long, depression and anxiety may be as easy to prevent as, say, polio and malaria are today. The thought’s enough to get my hormones pumping, anyway.


Working Off Worry

Want to get rid of gloomy thoughts? Try working some physical activity into your daily routine, says a new study.

Even adorable kitties need an endorphin boost sometimes.

For people who struggle with depression and anxiety, the research shows, exercise can be just as effective as antidepressant medication. It often prevents symptoms from getting worse – and in some cases, it even helps cure the problem.

Doctors have known for decades that a little physical activity can help distract you from your worries, boost positive feelings, and even relieve anxiety and depression. But in recent years, research has shown that exercise’s hidden effects reach much deeper: it tells your body to produce endorphins – natural chemicals that act similarly to morphine - to produce a natural high. And studies have shown that regular exercise can even make you smarter, by increasing blood flow to the brain and triggering neurogenesis – the birth of new neurons.

But as this new paper in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry reports, a team led by UT Southwestern’s Dr. Madhukar Trivedi has discovered something even more exciting – a regular dose of exercise can work just as well as antidepressant medication:

Many people who start on an antidepressant medication feel better after they begin treatment, but they still don’t feel completely well or as good as they did before they became depressed. This study shows that exercise can be as effective as adding another medication.

In other words, patients who exercised instead of adding a second drug often improved just as much as people who did add another drug.

By the time the 12-week study was finished, almost 30 percent of the patients who exercised had achieved full remission of their depression, and another 20 percent showed significant improvement. That’s close to 50 percent of depressed patients whose moods measurably improved thanks to exercise.

It’s also intriguing that different types of exercise seem to have different effects on people with various characteristics:

Moderate exercise was more effective for women with a family history of mental illness, whereas intense exercise was more effective with women whose families did not have a history of the disease. For men, the higher rate of exercise was more effective regardless of other characteristics.

So if you’re a woman with crazy parents, you might benefit most from a quick jog on the treadmill – but it looks like I’m gonna have to run a Warrior Dash if I want to stop sulking.

Anyway, the good news is, it doesn’t take much of an investment to start seeing the benefits of exercise – most doctors recommend somewhere between 30 and 60 minutes, three times a week. Even taking a short walk on your lunch break can cheer you up.

Unless you’re perambulating on one of these things - I don’t think that counts.

Depression Protection

If you’re starting to feel depressed, try looking around you, a new study suggests.

"No one understands the darkness in my mPFC."

People who tend to ponder their internal feelings are often prone to depression relapses, the research found; while people who focus on what they see can sometimes resist a spiral of negativity.1

As the journal Biological Psychiatry reports, a team led by ACLAB’s Dr. Norman Farb found that the brains of some formerly depressed patients respond to sad imagery by activating the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) – a brain area known to be involved in brooding – and that this activation pattern often predicts a relapse into depression over the next year. But other patients’ brains respond to the same imagery by activating visual areas of the occipital lobe – and this tends to predict resistance to depression:

Relapse was predicted by medial prefrontal cortical activity and contraindicated by visual cortical activity. mPFC reactivity predicted rumination, whereas visual cortical reactivity predicted distress tolerance (acceptance).

In other words, internally focused people are more likely to ruminate and get depressed, while externally focused people are more likely to look around them and accept reality as it is – even if they’ve been depressed before.

The team reached these conclusions by studying fMRI scans of volunteers as they watched sad movie clips (which, I’m going to assume, included this scene and this one). Though all the volunteers had struggled with depression at some point in their lives, they exhibited two different kinds of responses to their sad emotions: turning inward and thinking about them, or looking outward and processing what they could actually see.

Interestingly enough, these exact responses were both unique to the brains of depressed people – though they’re both somewhat related to responses we can all remember having at various points in our lives.

By following up with these same patients a year later, the researchers found that people who’d spent time brooding were 16 percent more likely to become Twilight fans. Er, I mean – excuse me – they were 16 percent more likely to become depressed again:

For a person with a history of depression, using the frontal brain’s ability to analyze and interpret sadness may actually be an unhealthy reaction that can perpetuate the chronic cycle of depression.

As Farb points out, scanning brains for these response patterns could help doctors catch and treat depression more quickly and accurately in the future. Still, the exact effects of depression are unique to each person who suffers from the disorder, and we’ll need a lot more research before we know just what these brain activation patterns can reliably predict.

It’ll also be interesting to see what a more detailed knowledge of these patterns can teach us about self-regulation of depression – or perhaps even ordinary sadness.

Until then, we’re just going to have to keep relying on whiskey I mean meditation! Wholesome, healthy meditation. That’s what I meant.

___________

1. “Spiral of Negativity” would be a great name for a ’90s grunge band.

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